Guidance Lecture of Malaysia Matriculation Biology


Amran Md Said
Matriculation College of Pahang

Experiment 5 : Cell Division - Mitosis


1. to prepare onion root tip slides
2. to identify stages in mitosis

Exercise 5.1  : Prepared slides of mitosis

Exercise 5.2  : Preparation of onion root tips slide


1. What is stage in mitosis that freqently observed? Why?

     Interphase because was the most frequent stage observed among the four stages of mitosis since it is the longest stage in a cell cycle.

2. Describe the chromosome behavior at each stage in mitosis

     Behavior at each stage in mitosis.
Prophase    – Chromosomes shorten/condense.
Metaphase – Chromosomes arrange on equatorial plate /
                       metaphase plate.
Anaphase – Chromosomes split and move to opposite poles of the

Telophase – Chromosomes arrive at the opposite poles.

3. Where does mitosis actively take place in plants?

     Root tips and shoot apex.

4. Discuss the importance of mitosis

       Importance of mitosis:
                             i.      Maintain the genetic material.
Formation of new cells which are identical to  parent cell in terms of  number and structure of chromosomes
                             ii.      Asexual reproduction.
Mitosis is the basis of asexual reproduction, production of new individuals of a species by one parent organism.
                           iii.      Regeneration.
Some animals are able to regenerate whole parts of  body, such as arms in star fish
                           iv.      Growth.
Increases number of cells in multicellular organisms
                             v.      Cell replacement.

Replaces damaged / old cells/tissues

Topical Quiz for chapter 1 & 2

Experiment 4 : Transport Across Membrane


1. to determine the sucrose concentration which is isotonic to potato cells
2. to determine the osmotic pressure of potato cells in atmospheric unit
3. to determine the sodium chloride concentration that cause haemolysis and creanation

Exercise 4.1 : Osmotic pressure of potato cells

Exercise 4.2 : Heamolysis and creanation of blood cells



Must refer to your result because different student showed different result, the intacellular constituent of the erythrocytes is different individually


1. a) What is the concentration of NaCl for haemolysis to occur?
    b) Explain your answer

must refer to your result (less or equal to 0.4%, different student showed different result)
because the solution is clear at that concentration, erythrocytes have burst, therefore no erythrocyte can be seen in that solution

2. a) What is the concentration of NaCl for crenation to occur?
    b) Explain your answer

must refer to your result (more or equal to 0.6%, different student showed different result)
because the solution is cloudy, erythrocytes have crenated or shrink.

Cell Devision

Cell Devision

At the end of this topic, students should be able to:

3.1 The concept of cell division
  • Explain cell division, 
  • state the importance of cell division in living organisms.
3.2  The cell cycle
  • Explain the stages in cell cycle
3.3   Mitosis 
  • Describe the four stages of the mitotic cell division.
  • Explain the behaviour of the chromosomes at each stage
  • Describe briefly the cytokinesis process.
  • Compare the cell division in animal and plant.
  • State the significance of mitosis.
3.4   Meiosis
  • Explain and compare the processes in meiosis I and meiosis II.
  • Explain the position and changes of the chromosomes at each stage.
  • Define chromatid, synapsis, bivalent, tetrad, chiasma, crossing over and centromere.
  • State the significance of meiosis.
  • Compare meiosis and mitosis.

Experiment 3 : Plant Histology


1. to prepare and identify the onion epidermal cells
2. to identify different types of plant tissues
3. to compare the structure and distribution of tissues in monocots and dicots

Exercise 3.1  :  Identification of epidermal cells in onion

Exercise 3.2  :  Structures of plant tissues in plants





1. You are given two slides of cross section of Angiosperms stems and roots. How would you differentiate between the following?
   a) the stems of monocot and dicot plants
   b) the roots of monocot and dicot plant

2.  Describe the structures and functions of parenchyma, collenchyma and sclenchyma cells

3.  Compare the structure and functions of plant epidermal and animal epitheliail tissues

Experiment 2 : Animal Histology


1.   To examine the animal tissues under the light compound microscope
2.   To identify the structure and organization of animal tissues 

(I) Epithelial Tissues

100x Squamous Epithelium
100x Cuboidal Epithelium
100x Stratified Epithelium
100x Columnar Epithelium
(II) Nerve Tissue
100x Nerve 
(III) Muscle Tissues
100x Smooth Muscle
100x Skeletal Muscle
100x Cardiac Muscle

(IV) Connective Tissues

100x Bone
100x Hyaline
100x Blood

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